Human Male Sex: Endocrine Disruption and Male Reproductive Health

Human Male Sex: Endocrine Disruption and Male Reproductive Health

9.1 Introduction

Male sexuality is decided genetically during the time of fertilization because of the presence of a Y chromosome within the spermatozoan because it fuses utilizing the X-chromosome-containing ovum, additionally the region that is sex-determining of Y chromosome (SRY) then drives the bipotential gonad associated with the embryo to be a testis through hormone-independent mechanisms 1,2. Nonetheless, after the testis that is early formed, development of the total male phenotype, including further testicular development (masculinization), becomes entirely determined by a complex community of hormonal signals, especially hormones secreted through the testes 2. People who lack any gonads are phenotypically female 1 and endocrine intervention is necessary to change the standard feminine phenotype in order to become male 2. This makes both development and upkeep of masculinization at risk of endocrine-disrupting impacts at all developmental phases from very very early embryo to adulthood; in specific, interruption of very early embryonic developmental procedures might have consequences for male health that is reproductive adult life 2. Continue reading